In honor and remembrance of the ancestors who served with this regiment, lest they be forgotten, this regimental history is dedicated to:
Stafford Davis Jr. a first cousin four times removed was born on 10 May 1829 in Montgomery County Georgia, the son of Stafford Davis Sr. and Penelope "Penny" Lott. In 1849 when Stafford was 19, he first married Eliza Adeline Murray , daughter of Jehu Jackson Styles Murray and Sabra Dias, in Ware County Georgia. She was born on 2 January 1823 in Liberty County Georgia. Eliza died in Ware County Georgia on 15 December 1902. After 1874 when Stafford was 44, he second married Nancy Adelina S. Kight daughter of Thomas Kight. She was born in 1824. Stafford enlisted on 7 May 1862, in Savannah, Georgia, for a period of three years by Colonel Harrison. His original enlistment came in Company G, 57th Regiment (Harrison's) Georgia Infantry, which later became the 32nd Georgia regiment. He received a bounty of $50 and signed his full name. Private Davis was listed in a Georgia hospital some time before or during November 1862, but returned to service. He appears on a receipt roll for clothing in June 1864, and served until the end of the war. He appeared on a roll of prisoners of war, but surrendered and was paroled at Augusta, Georgia, on 31 May 1865. The surrender and parole was in compliance with the terms of a Military Convention made on 26 April 1865, at Bennett's House near Durham's Station, NC. His widow Nancy S. Davis later filed for a Confederate pension from the State of Georgia. Stafford died in Ware County Georgia on 18 November 1902 at the age of 73. National Archives Microfilm Box, Roll, and Record: 000226, 0016, 00001342
James Ross Paulk, a second cousin four times removed was born on 6 January 1843 in Wilkerson County, Georgia, the son of Micajah Paulk and Nancy Ross. On 3 December 1872 when James was 29, he married Lugenia Ella Collins in Wilkerson County ,Georgia. She was born on 15 August 1849 in Wilkerson County. Lugenia died on 13 September 1890. James was a member of Company D enlisting as a private on 3 May 1862. He was captured at Vicksburg on 4 July 1863 and exchanged August 1863. National Archives Microfilm Box, Roll, and Record: 000226, 0047, 00002262
The Fifty-seventh regiment Georgia volunteers went into service with the following field officers: Col. William Barkaloo, Lieut.-Col. E. S. Guyton, Maj. John W Shin-holser, Commissary M. W. Johnston, Asst. Quartermaster H. Cleveland, Adjt. T. J. Dyson. The captains were: (A) L. C. Bryan, (B) James M. Smith, (c) Lucius Q. Tucker, (D) Henry K. Byington, (E) C. H. Richardson, (F) John F. Vinson, (G) James P. Jordon, (H) John R. Bonner, (I) George W. Bishop, (K) J. W. Shinholser. The Fifty-seventh served under Kirby Smith in east Tennessee through the greater part of 1862. In Steven. son's division it participated in the siege of Cumberland Gap and the march into Kentucky. In the latter part of the year it went in the same division to Mississippi, participating in the battles of the Vicksburg campaign and surrendering with the rest of that gallant garrison. After exchange it took part in the Atlanta and Tennessee campaigns, and in the spring of 1865, being consolidated with the First volunteers and Sixty-third Georgia under the name of the First Georgia, it served in the Carolinas under Joe Johnston. Stephen De Bruhl and George K. Hunter successively became adjutants of this regiment, and J. N. Shinholser succeeded Capt. J. W. Shinholser, promoted major.
Company Organization of the 57th Regiment
Company A: Thomas County men-The Dixie Boys. Company A of this regiment formed part of Company F, 1st Consolidated Regiment Georgia Infantry and surrendered at Greensboro, North Carolina on April 26, 1865.
Company B: Laurens County men. Company B of this regiment formed part of Company F, 1st Consolidated Regiment Georgia Infantry and surrendered at Greensboro, North Carolina on April 26, 1865.
Company C: Laurens County men.
Company D: Wilkinson County men-Smith Guards. Company D of this regiment formed part of Company A, 1st Consolidated Regiment Georgia Infantry and surrendered at Greensboro, North Carolina on April 26, 1865.
Company E: Houston County men-Fort Valley Infantry
Company F: Crawford County men-Braggs Rifles. This company was subsequently Company D, 1st Consolidated Regiment Georgia Volunteer Infantry.
Company G: Washington County men-Mount Vernon Rifles
Company H: Baldwin County men-Independent Volunteers
Company I: Laurens and Wilkinson County men-Barkuloo Rifles
Company K: Wilkinson County men-Oconee Greys
Bibliography-57th Georgia Infantry
Confederate Military History, Extended Edition. Vol. 7: Georgia. Wilmington, NC: Broadfoot,
1987. See pp. 127-28 for a brief unit history.
Crute, Joseph H., Jr. Units of the Confederate States Army. Midlothian, VA: Derwent Books,
1987. Ref. See p. 114 for a concise summary of the regiment's service.
Georgia State Division of Confederate Pensions and Records. Roster of the Confederate Soldiers of
Georgia, l86l-l865. Vol. 5. Hapeville, Georgia: Longino & Porter, 1959. pp. 917-1023. Unit roster.
Jones, Charles E. Georgia in the War, 1861-1866. Atlanta, Georgia: Foot & Davies, 1909. E559.4J76.
See p. 33 for an incomplete list of unit officers.
Sifakis, Stewart. Compendium of the Confederate Armies:...Georgia. NY: Facts on File, 1995.
- Notes from the Official Records on the 57th Regiment
- O.R.-- SERIES I--VOLUME XXIV/2 MAY 16, 1863.--Battle of Champion's Hill, or Baker's Creek, Miss. No. 29.--Report of Maj. Gen. Carter L. Stevenson, C. S. Army, commanding Division. HEADQUARTERS THIRD BRIGADE, STEVENSON'S DIVISION, Enterprise, July 22, 1863.
- SIR: I have the honor to make the following report of the operations of this brigade, commencing with the battle of Baker's Creek and terminating with the capitulation of Vicksburg:
- On the afternoon of May 15, the brigade left the line of battle for the two days previous established in front of Edwards Depot, and proceeded in the direction of Raymond, crossing Baker's Creek at the bridge over that stream. A short distance beyond the bridge the line of march led from the Raymond
- road into a neighborhood road passing to the right, and at about a mile distant from the point of separation of the two roads the brigade was halted, bivouacked for the remainder of the night along with two other brigades of the division, no line of battle being here established. Shortly after sunrise on the morning of May 16, orders were given to his division by Major-General Stevenson to retraverse a portion of the route passed over the previous night. This division, being the left of
- the army, the movement was commenced by its left brigade S. D.] Lee's), in rear (right)of which followed the Third Brigade. The regiments were promptly brought into position and the line established, moving by the left flank. When the brigade had proceeded about two-thirds of the distance toward the Raymond road, its left being about 500 yards from that road, it was halted
- by order of the major-general. The brigade line was established on a succession of slight ridges overlooking a clear field. Strong parties of skirmishers were at once thrown out beyond this field, with directions to penetrate the woods on the other side and engage and hold in check those of the enemy. This they did under the efficient management of Lieutenant-Colonel [J. F. B.J Jackson (Thirty-ninth Georgia) commanding. Shortly after these dispositions were made, word was sent me by General Lee
- that, in consequence of the passage of the enemy toward his left, he was extending his line in that direction, coupled with the request that I would move by the flank to preserve the interval between us. The major-general (present with me) directed this to be done, and I moved on the required distance.
- After making two or more of such moves (my left having by this time crossed the Raymond road), I was informed by the major-general that Lee had bent the left of his line toward the rear, the two branches making an angle more or less obtuse, and was directed to accord my movements wit his.
- Having sent forward an officer of my staff to notify the officer commanding the skirmishers of the change of direction of the line, and to direct him to make their movements to correspond, I at once proceeded from the center to the extreme left of my brigade, to superintend the change. The directions above referred to were communicated to the officers in command of the skirmishers, but owing to the distance of this line in advance, the inability in a wooded country of determining the point at which the change of direction should be made, and especially to the fact that they were unable to keep up communication with the skirmishers of Lee's brigade, they were unable to follow up the movement, and later in the day were forced, after a gallant contest, in which they suffered severely, to retire toward the right.
- In its movement by the left flank the brigade had entered a wood rather open for the first few hundred yards, but gradually becoming denser. Arrived at the point where the brigade on my left had filed to the left, it was found that the angle formed by the two branches of the line was nearly a right
- angle. Here my left regiment (the Thirty-ninth Georgia) was promptly turned into the new direction. The whole of this regiment and four companies of the next (the Thirty-fourth Georgia) had succeeded in getting upon what may be termed the second front of the square, when the halting of Lee's brigade
- necessitated the same on my part.
- It should here be stated that the three left regiments (the Thirty-ninth, the Thirty-fourth, and the Thirty-sixth) had each three companies at the front as skirmishers, in addition to which the Thirty-fourth and Thirty-sixth had each one company absent on detached service, thus leaving only six companies of these regiments in line. A halt having been made as above stated, and the two sides of the square faced outward, notice was at this moment given me that Lee (whose brigade was concealed from my observation by the density of the wood) was moving forward. I immediately
- advanced the second front, with a view to keep abreast with the supposed movement. Tim brigade had advanced but a few paces when I was informed that the reported movement by Lee had not been made. A halt was at once called, and the line, somewhat disordered as [by] the broken and wooded
- character of the ground traversed, rectified. In this position the second front of the brigade was drawn up on a succession of ridges and knolls heavily timbered, beyond which, at a distance generally of about 50 yards, the ground fell off abruptly. While thus engaged in rectifying the line, the battle broke upon us, and without previous intimation received, the skirmishers having been unable for the reasons hitherto given to keep pace with the movement of the line, and being no longer interposed between it
- and the enemy, though of this I was not informed until afterward.
- Favored by the broken and wooded character of the locality, the enemy advanced two very full regiments (the Seventh and Eleventh Illinois) upon that portion of my line forming what I have termed its second front. Each of these regiments would seem to have been formed into a double column,
- occupying a half regimental front, and their whole line to have extended from the point of the angle to about the right of the Thirty-ninth Georgia. Approaching unseen to within a distance of less than 50 yards, the enemy poured in a very heavy and destructive volley, which was at once replied to with effect. About the same moment the enemy appeared in front of and opened fire upon the first front of my line (a brisk and effective fire), but not so near and destructive as that on the second front. On this (second) front the portions of the regiments engaged held for a time their position against the greatly superior force of the enemy, incited by the encouragement and example of their respective commanders--Colonels McConnell and Johnson--the former of whom fell here, severely wounded. But apprised now of the exact position occupied by a section of Captain Johnston's battery (to which had
- been added a piece from Waddell's battery), which position was about opposite the left of the Thirty-fourth Georgia, the enemy's right regiment, by an oblique movement, placed itself in rear of the regiment already confronting the Thirty-fourth Georgia, and the two united bore down upon this regiment and the right of the Thirty-ninth. The position of the Thirty-fourth Georgia on the new direction was unable to withstand the charge of so overpowering a force, and it, together with the right
- (Thirty-ninth Georgia), was compelled to give way. Throwing myself at the point at which the break had been made, efforts were made to rally the broken line; but the enemy having obtained possession of the batteries and following up closely their advantage, these efforts proved unsuccessful,
- and the whole of the second front fell back. By this retrograde movement, the right of the Thirty-fourth Georgia and the Thirty-sixth Georgia Regiments, which had in the mean time been engaged with the enemy in their front, were uncovered, and the colonel of the latter regiment ([Jesse A.] Glenn), finding that the enemy had penetrated in his rear as far as his colors,
- gave the order to fall back. This regiment was rallied and held its position against the enemy, advancing in its front, till, threatened with being flanked on its right, it was again compelled to fall back to a new position.
- In a similar manner the two right regiments (Fifty-sixth Georgia, Colonel [E. P.]Watkins, and Fifty-seventh Georgia, Colonel [William] Barkuloo) were compelled in succession, by the uncovering of their left and the pressure of the enemy on their front, to fall back, which they did, holding the enemy in check at various points, when they were able to make a stand. In this movement Colonel Watkins, who had left his sick-room at Vicksburg to take command of his regiment in the fight, was severely wounded. With these operations ends what may be termed the first phase of the battle
- so far as concerns this brigade.
- Barton's brigade, originally on my right, had in the mean time been moved toward the extreme left, thus leaving my right entirely exposed. This compelled the two right regiments, when they finally fell back, to proceed as far as the farm house in front of our first position before commencing their reorganization. The other regiments of the brigade fell back and reformed on the Raymond road, the two left regiments (the Thirty-ninth and Thirty-fourth Georgia) making no stand till they reached that road. Here portions of my three left regiments were rallied, together with portions of one or more of Lee's regiments and a line was formed along this road. While engaged in forming this line we were not pressed by the enemy, who would seem to have been similarly occupied. About this time a Missouri brigade approached the battle-field from the right, and went in on the ground previously occupied by the extreme right of my brigade. As soon as they had completed their reorganization, the Fifty-seventh Georgia Regiment, and shortly afterward the Fifty-sixth, now commanded by Lieutenant-Colonel [J. T.] Slaughter, accompanied this movement, and went in on the right of the Missourians. These regiments here hotly engaged the enemy, and, particularly in the movement which drove him for a time, advanced considerably beyond the line on which they had first
- encountered him in the morning. They only withdrew on the general order being given to this effect.
- The three regiments which formed on the Raymond road as their second line having been brought into some kind of order, and Barton's brigade, on the left, having gone in and engaged the enemy, these regiments immediately thereupon advanced into the wood in their front, and formed abreast with
- Barton, engaging the enemy on ground near that originally held by Lee. The contest here was sharp and severe for a time, but of short duration. The enemy, flushed with his previous success, and in number much superior to ours, drove our men apparently along the whole division front; slowly at
- first, afterwards more rapidly, till on reaching the road the flight became precipitate. On this occasion scattered bands of them crossed the road in close pursuit of the fugitives. After this it became impossible to rally them again, though strenuous efforts were made to do so several hundred
- yards from the road. In this, as in the first and more successful effort to rally, I was greatly assisted by Captain Johnston, whose battery was lost in the first action. The flight was continued toward the lower bridge over Baker's Creek, at which point the greater portion of the army crossed.
- Crossing with several members of my staff and officers of artillery at a point between the bridges, I repaired to the upper bridge and reported to General Barton, whom I found there. Remaining there until nearly sunset, the bridge was then destroyed, or partially so, and we fell back toward Edwards
- Depot. Here, with portions of two brigades assembled, the enemy's advance was held in check till the train was destroyed and the army had nearly passed the depot by the other road. We then continued the retreat unmolested to the other side of Big Black. I received valuable assistance from the members of my staff, who were all at different times in the hottest parts of the fight. The regimental commanders and field officers, though their efforts were unsuccessful, without an exception acted with great courage and judgment, as did also, as a general thing, the company officers.
- The list of casualties has hitherto been given. To recapitulate, I make the following statement: The brigade went into action about 2,500 strong. Its losses are as follows: Killed, 142; wounded, 314; missing, 539; total, 995. Of the number reported missing it is probable about 200 were killed or wounded. This brigade took no part in the battle of Big Black. Leaving Bovina on Sunday, it entered Vicksburg the same evening (May 17).
- On the morning of the 18th, it moved into the trenches, where it remained without relief for forty-seven days, until the capitulation of the city on July 4. Its right rested on and included the Hall's Ferry road, its left extending the square fort held by General Lee's right. No assault was made by the enemy along the brigade front during the continuation of the siege. An almost unremitting fire of sharpshooters was kept up during all hours of daylight during the whole time, varied by occasional brisk cannonading. The enemy's rifle-pits in time were so extended as to almost entirely envelop
- the brigade front, and were generally about 150 yards distant. At the redoubts on the Hall's Ferry road, however, they had approached much nearer, and were in possession of the foot of the slope on which one of the redoubts was constructed, about 70 yards distant, at which point they were shielded
- by the configuration of the ground from the fire of the work. Sorties were made upon this point at two different times, Lieutenant-Colonel [C. S.] Guyton, Fifty-seventh Georgia, commanding on each occasion, and on each a degree of success was attained, in the second the enemy being badly beaten, leaving 8 or 10 dead on the field, and losing about the same number (one a lieutenant-colonel) in prisoners. It was finally deemed advisable, however, to leave the point to be occupied by them.
- At the time of the capitulation they had commenced to mine at this point, as also at another in front of the Fifty-sixth Georgia. At the first named of these points we were constructing a counter-mine. The list of casualties has been heretofore given. They are as follows: Total killed and wounded, 171, of which number about 43 were killed. Respectfully submitted. A. CUMMING, Brigadier-General, Commanding Third Brigade. ASSISTANT ADJUTANT-GENERAL, Stevenson's Division.
- O.R.-- SERIES I--VOLUME XXIV/1 Operations In Mississippi And West Tennessee, Including Those In Arkansas And Louisiana. Connected With The Siege Of Vicksburg.--January 20-August 10, 1863. No. 11.--Reports of Lieut. Gen. John O. Pemberton, C. S. Army, commanding Department of Mississippi and Eastern Louisiana, of Operations April 4-July 4. HEADQUARTERS STEVENSON'S DIVISION, Demopolis, Ala., July 29, 1863.
- MAJOR: I have the honor to submit the following report of the operations of my division from its advance from Vicksburg to the capitulation of the city. It has been delayed to this time by the constant occupation of myself and my subordinate commanders during the siege of Vicksburg and by the march which followed its capitulation.
- At about 5 p.m., on May 15, my division, being the rear of the army, left its position in line of battle near Edwards Depot, with the view of cutting the enemy's line of communication with his depot of supplies and forcing him to give us battle on our own ground. We reached the head of the column in
- bivouac on the Raymond road at 3 o'clock, and there halted for the night.
- At sunrise I was summoned to appear at headquarters, where I was informed by the lieutenant-general commanding that he had received instructions from General Johnston to join him near Canton as soon as possible, and that he had decided to move at once, in pursuance thereto,
- toward Brownsville, on the north of the railroad, by the route as far as the railroad by which we had advanced the previous night. He directed me to move the trains as rapidly as possible to a point at least 3 miles beyond the Jackson road, and there halt them, arranged to the right and left of the
- road in such a manner as would afford an uninterrupted passage to the infantry and artillery. I immediately caused the trains to be turned, and, in charge of my Fourth Brigade (Colonel [A. W.] Reynolds), to be moved rapidly to the rear, in accordance with the instructions I had received.
- Colonel Reynolds was directed to place one regiment in front of the train, and to form the remainder of his brigade in line of battle, covering the Clinton and Raymond roads, there to remain until relieved by the next brigade in his rear. It was intended to hold these roads by the brigades as they successively arrived until the passage of the entire army could be effected. The success of this movement depending mainly on the speedy relief of the road from the obstruction caused by the presence of the train, I dispatched two of my staff officers (Majors [Howell] Webb and [J. W.]
- Anderson) to superintend the operations of those in charge of the train.
- About 9.30 a.m. the latter reported that the road was open, the trains having been placed as ordered, and free for the passage of the troops. This fact I immediately communicated to the lieutenant-general commanding. About 9 a.m., Lee relieved Reynolds on the Raymond and Clinton roads, and
- in a very short time his skirmishers were engaged by those of the enemy. A brisk skirmish of about three-quarters of an hour developed our position to the enemy, who at once changed his direction by the right flank, with the view of turning our left. My three brigades (the fourth, Colonel Reynolds,
- having moved off with the train) were immediately drawn up in order of battle, Barton on the right, Cumming in the center, and Lee on the left, as previously stated. The line of the march was a cross-road from the Clinton to the Raymond road, intersecting the former nearly at right angles. It was at this fork that my left rested. The enemy, in columns of divisions, moved steadily around our left, forcing it to change direction to correspond, and their movement was so rapid as to keep my line (a single one) in constant motion by the left flank. Of this fact I informed the lieutenant-general commanding, and from time to time every apparent increase of force or additional movements by the enemy was promptly reported.
- Finding that they were about to concentrate on the left with the larger part of their force, still moving a column to the flank, as I had no reserve, I moved General Barton (my right brigade) by the rear to the extreme left. At the time this order was given the lieutenant-general commanding was notified of the fact, and was informed that the enemy had massed a large force on the left, which would doubtless be the main point of attack. My line had now been moved to the left, until two regiments of the center, now the right (the Fifty-sixth Georgia, Colonel [E. P.] Watkins, and the Fifty-seventh Georgia, Colonel [William] Barkuloo). occupied the Raymond and Clinton roads, with an interval of 300 yards between them and the remainder of their brigades. This separation was necessary to protect the right and rear of the new line, now threatened by these roads. This new line, upon which the attack was made, was formed as follows: The right rested at the angle of the original line, composed of three regiments (the Thirty-sixth Georgia, Colonel [Jesse A.] Glenn; the Thirty-fourth Georgia, Colonel [J. A. W.] Johnson, and the Thirty-ninth Georgia, Colonel [J. T.] McConnell), of Cumming's brigade. Lee's brigade (the Twentieth Alabama, Colonel [Isham W.] Garrott; the Twenty-third Alabama, Colonel [F. K.] Beck; the Thirtieth Alabama, Colonel [Charles M.] Shelley; the Thirty-first Alabama, Lieuten-ant-Colonel [T. M.] Arrington) occupied the center, and Barton's brigade (the Fortieth Georgia, Colonel [Abda] Johnson; the Forty-first Georgia, Colonel [William E.] Curtiss; the Forty-second Georgia, Colonel [R. J.] Henderson; the Forty-third Georgia, Colonel [Skidmore] Harris, and the Fifty-second Georgia, Colonel [C. D.] Phillips) the left, the left resting on Baker's Creek, near the bridge. A portion of Captain [James F.] Waddell's battery was posted at the angle of the lines to defend the approaches by the Clinton and Raymond roads, and the remainder, with two pieces of Captain [J. W.] Johnston's battery, on the left of Cum-ming's brigade. Captain [S. J.]
- Ridley, with a portion of his battery, was on the left of Barton, as was also Captain [Max. Van D.] Corput's battery. My line, as will thus appear, was necessarily single, irregular, divided, and without reserves. Under the supposition that the army was to move forward in pursuance of the instructions given in the morning, this ground was not reconnoitered with a view to taking up a position for battle until we were on the move facing the enemy.
- At about 10.30 a.m. a division of the enemy, in column of brigades, attacked Lee and Cumming. They were handsomely met and forced back some distance, when they were re enforced, apparently by about three divisions, two of which moved forward to the attack and the third continued its march toward the left, with the view of forcing it. The enemy now made a vigorous attack in three lines upon the whole front. They were bravely met, and for a long time the unequal conflict was maintained with stubborn resolution. But this could not last. Six thousand five hundred men could not hold permanently in check four divisions, numbering, from their own statements, about 25,000 men; and finally, crushed by overwhelming numbers, my right gave way and was pressed back upon the two regiments covering the Clinton and Raymond roads, where they were in part rallied. Encouraged by this success, the enemy redoubled his efforts and pressed with the utmost vigor along my line, forcing it back.
- At this time (about 2.30 p.m.) Bowen's division of Missouri and Arkansas troops, General Green on the right and Colonel [F. M.] Cockrell on the left, arrived, gallantly charged the enemy, supported on the left by a portion of Cumming's and Lee's brigades, and drove them back beyond the original line.
- In the mean time the enemy had continued his movement to our left, and fell upon Barton in overwhelming numbers. He charged them gallantly, but was forced back, and the enemy, following up his advantage, cut him off entirely from the rest of the division. It was here that the lamented Major [Joseph W.] Anderson, my chief of artillery, fell, in the fearless discharge of his duty. In the very front
- of battle the brave soldier, the noble gentleman, met his death. Here, too, the gallant Ridley, refusing to leave his guns, single-handed and alone fought until he tell, pierced with six shots, winning even from his enemies the highest tribute of admiration. Nothing could protect the artillery horses from the deadly fire of the enemy. Almost all were killed, and along my whole line the pieces, though fought with a desperation on the part of both officers and men which I cannot praise too highly, almost all fell into the hands of the enemy. In this manner the guns of Corput's and Johnston's batteries and Waddell's section were lost. Double-shotted, they were fired until in many instances the swarms of the enemy were in among them. Officers and men stood by them to the very latest moment that they could be served, and to Captains Corput and Johnston and Lieutenant [T. Jeff.] Bates, their subordinate
- officers and men, I desire to return the thanks which their gallantry has made their due. On the extreme right the guns under the immediate command of Captain Waddell were fought and lost in the same manner, but retaken by the Missourians. This brave officer, assisted by Lieut. G. D. Wise, ordnance officer, fought one of them with his own hands until Bowen, too, retired. Early in the day the Forty second Regiment of Georgia Volunteers (Colonel [R. J.] Henderson, of Barton's brigade) had been sent to hold the bridge over Baker's Creek. Barton now moved to this point, held it for a time, and finally crossed and took up position near Edwards Depot, which he held until nearly dark. Here he was joined by many officers and men of Cumming's brigade, who, when driven from their position by the overwhelming numbers of the enemy, had retired by the same route he took.
- O.R.-- SERIES I--VOLUME XXIV/2 MAY 16, 1863.--Battle of Champion's Hill, or Baker's Creek, Miss. No. 32.--Report of Brig. Gen. A. Cumming, C. S. Army, commanding Third Brigade.
- DEMOPOLIS, ALA., August 20, 1863. SIR: Your telegram has been received. In compliance with your request, namely, that I shall give you a written statement of the orders carried by me in the battle of Baker's Creek, I make the following statement: The first order I carried to Major-General Loring in the forenoon was that you had not given any orders in relation to his ordnance wagons.
- The second, to Major-General Loring, was later in the day, about p.m., as well as I could judge. The order was that he (Loring) should hold himself in readiness to re-enforce Stevenson. The third order carried by me was at the time that you had rallied the Fifty-sixth and Fifty-seventh Georgia Regiments, who were in the corn-cribs, and you were leading them into action. This order was that I should go and bring Loring to that point; that Stevenson's right was very hard pressed, and to hurry up as soon as possible. On my way to his headquarters, I met General Buford on his way to the front.
- To my inquiries as to the whereabouts of Loring, I was told he was in the rear. When quite near his
- headquarters, I was informed that he had gone on, and that I must have met him ; whereupon I retraced my steps. In answer to my repeated inquiries, I was informed that he had followed along a fence in a westerly direction and at right angles to the road over which I had traveled. I followed his trail a half mile or so, when I overtook him and delivered your order; whereupon he baited (he was at the head of Featherston's brigade) and asked me the road. I told him he was on the wrong road and going in the wrong direction; instead of going north, he was going west. He then asked that I should lead the way and he would follow me. To which I replied that I was unacquainted with the roads, with the exception of the one over which I had traveled. He then gave the word "forward," and continued in a northwesterly direction, but in a short time turned in a northeastern course and came up to the extreme left of Stevenson's division. At this point we were met by Mr. Taylor, who delivered a more recent order from you. At this time and point I left him (Loring), and did not see him again. This was the last order which I carried on the field. I have the honor to be, most respectfully, your obedient servant, E. H. BRYAN. Lieutenant-General PEMBERTON.
- SERIES I--VOLUME XXXVIII/4 CONFEDERATE CORRESPONDENCE, ORDERS, AND RETURNS RELATING TO OPERATIONS IN THE ATLANTA CAMPAIGN, FROM MAY 1, 1864, TO JUNE 30, 1864.--#4 CONFEDERATE STATES OF AMERICA, WAR DEPARTMENT,
- Richmond, Va., September 11, 1863. Brig. Gen. S. A. MEREDITH, Agent of Exchange:
- SIR: On to-morrow, September 12, 1863, by virtue of the provisions of the cartel, I shall declare exchanged the following Confederate officers and men captured at Vicksburg July 4, 1863, and since then paroled, to wit:
- First. The officers and men of General Stevenson's division, consisting of Generals Barton's! Lee's, Reynolds', and Cumming's brigades. The regiments belonging to said division are the Fortieth, Forty-first, Forty-second, Forty-third, Fifty-second, Thirty-fourth, Thirty-sixth, Thirty-ninth, Fifty-sixth, and Fifty-seventh Georgia; the Twentieth, Twenty-third, Thirtieth, Thirty-first, and Forty-sixth Alabama; the Third, Thirty-first, Forty-third, and Fifty-ninth Tennessee. The following artillery also belonged to it, to wit: Botetourt Artillery, Waddell's artillery, Cherokee Artillery, and Third Maryland Battery.
- Second. The officers and men of General Bowen's division, consisting of Generals Cockrell's and Dockery's brigades. The regiments belonging to said division are the First, Second, Third, Fifth, and Sixth Missouri Cavalry. The following artillery also belong to it, to wit: Guibor's battery, Landis'
- battery, Wado's battery, Lowe's battery, and Dawson's battery.
- Third. The officers and men of Brigadier-General Moore's brigade of General Forney's division. The regiments belonging to said brigade are the Thirty-seventh, Fortieth, and Forty-second Alabama, and the Thirty-fifth and Fortieth Mississippi.
- Fourth. The officers and men of the Second Texas Regiment.
- Fifth. The officers and men of Waul's Legion. I have in my possession more valid paroles of your officers and men than would be an equivalent for the officers and men herein enumerated. In addition thereto I have delivered some 10,000 or 12,000 at City Point since the last declaration of exchange. It, however, has been the practice of the agents of exchange, whenever one of them declared a special exchange, to allow the other to select the equivalents. In accordance with such practice
- I now give you that privilege. If you do not avail yourself of it I will name the Federal officers and men who are discharged from their parole by reason of this present declaration of exchange. Respectfully, your obedient servant, RO. OULD, Agent of Exchange.
- SPECIAL ORDERS, No. 232. ADJT. AND INSP. GENERAL'S OFFICE, Richmond, September 30, l863. XXI. The Fifty-seventh Georgia Regiment, Stevenson's division, will repair to Savannah, Ga., and report for duty to Brigadier-General Mercer. By command of the Secretary of War: JNO. WITHERS, Assistant Adjutant-General.
- O.R.-- SERIES I--VOLUME XXIV/2 MAY 16, 1863.--Battle of Champion's Hill, or Baker's Creek, Miss. No. 37.--Statements of Confederate staff officers.
- The weakness of our garrison prevented anything like a system of sallies, but from time to time, as opportunities offered, and the enemy effected lodgments too close to our works, they were made with spirit and success. Among them, I may particularize a night sally made under the command of Lieutenant-Colonel [C. S.] Guyton, of the Fifty-seventh Georgia Regiment, with a portion of that regiment and of the Forty-third Tennessee, the former of Cumming's, the latter of Reynolds' brigade. The enemy had intrenched themselves at three different points on and to the left of the Hall's Ferry road. The command sallied out, charged their works with admirable gallantry, and took them, with considerable loss to the enemy, who were in greatly superior force.
- On the lines occupied by General Barton and Colonel Reynolds, the configuration of the ground favoring it, the enemy were prevented from making any close lodgments by a judicious system of picketing and a series of attacks; and although they sometimes succeeded by force of numbers in
- gaining favorable positions, they were invariably dispossessed by the daring sallies of the garrison. A reconnaissance made of the Warrenton road, under Colonel Curtiss, Forty-first Georgia, re-suited in the capture of 107 of the enemy's pickets. The reconnaissance was conducted in a manner which
- reflects credit on that able officer.
- I cannot find words sufficiently strong to express the pride and gratification afforded me by the dauntless spirit with which officers and men encountered all the dangers, and by the unmurmuring endurance with which they bore up for forty-seven sleepless nights and days, under all the
- hardships incident to their position. Confined, without a moment's relief from the very day of their entrance into the fortifications to that of the capitulation of the city, to the narrow trenches; exposed without shelter to the broiling sun and drenching rain; subsisting on rations barely sufficient for the support of life; engaged from the earliest dawn till dark, and often during the night, in one ceaseless conflict with the enemy, they neither faltered nor complained, but, ever looking forward with confidence to relief, bore up bravely under every privation--saw their ranks decimated by disease and the missiles of the enemy--with the fortitude that adorns the soldier and the spirit that becomes the patriot who battles in a holy cause.
- O.R.-- SERIES I--VOLUME XXIV/2 MAY 19-JULY 4, 1863.--The Siege of Vicksburg, Miss. No. 77.--Reports of Maj. Gen. Carter L. Stevenson, C. S. Army, commanding Division.
- October 13, 1863.--The Federal fleet inside the bar and off the harbor remains unchanged, with the exception of one additional schooner. The operations of the enemy on Morris Island are the same as usual, though there was less apparent activity displayed by them to-day than usual. Thirty-nine shots fired by Simkins and 38 by Cheves; effect not reported.
- At the former battery an "infernal machine" floated up last night and was secured. (No description of it is given in the report.) A platform for Mortar No. 2 at Battery Haskell is being laid down by the
- engineer corps, and the bomb-proof at that work is under construction. [One private of Company E, Second South Carolina Artillery, severely wounded at Fort Johnson.]
- Dispatches from the Stono state that 87 men with knapsacks crossed Stevens' Bridge and proceeded toward Dixon's Island. The enemy's pickets are still on Horse and Horseshoe Islands. Brigadier-General Mercer, commanding at Savannah, in reply to telegram from these headquarters, telegraphs that 200 of the Fifty-seventh Georgia Regiment have arrived in Savannah. He also
- acknowledges receipt of order directing [Robert H.] Anderson's regiment to prepare to march at a moment's notice. O.R.-- SERIES I--VOLUME XXVIII/1 Operations On The Coasts Of South Carolina And Georgia, And In Middle And East Florida.--June 12-December 31, 1863. No. 5.--Extract from Journal(*) of Operations in Charleston Harbor, September 1-December 31, 1863.
GENERAL ORDERS, No. 45.HDQRS. MIL. DIST. OF GEORGIA, Savannah, October 20, 1863.
- Brig. Gen. R. E. Colston, Provisional Army, C. S., having been assigned to duty in the District of Georgia, is hereby placed in command of the troops heretofore attached to Taliaferro's brigade, and the lines and batteries manned by them, and will be obeyed and respected accordingly.
- Brigadier-General Colston's command will include the First Volunteers, Georgia Regiment, Colonel Olmstead; the Fifty-seventh Regiment Georgia Volunteers, Colonel Barkuloo; the Sixty-third Regiment Georgia Volunteers, Colonel Gordon; the First Florida Battalion, Lieutenant-Colonel Hopkins; Lieutenant-Colonel Pritchard's command, Maj. A. L. Hartridge's command, and
- Captain Hanleiter's command. It will embrace the city lines and the batteries at Fort Bartow, Greenwich, Thunderbolt, Beaulieu, and Rose Dew, and the Isle of Hope. By command of Brigadier-General Mercer: W. W. GORDON,
- O.R.-- SERIES I--VOLUME XXVIII/2 Correspondence, Orders, And Returns Relating To Operations On The Coasts Of South Carolina And Georgia, And In Middle And East Florida, From June 12 To December 31, 1863. CONFEDERATE CORRESPONDENCE, ETC.--#10 HEADQUARTERS, Savannah, Ga., January 14, 1864. Brig. Gen. THOMAS JORDAN,
- Chief of Staff, Charleston, S.C.:
- GENERAL: The past two or three days have brought to light a bad state of affairs here. Among the troops stationed at the batteries on Rose Dew Island, mouth of the Little Ogeechee River, there are at least a few men of bad spirit who have been attempting to excite the troops there and at other
- points around Savannah to acts of insubordination and desertion. It is to be feared even that a spirit of discontent has spread throughout the whole command at Rose Dew, extending possibly to other companies.
- As reported by a corporal stationed at Beauleiu, the conspirators proposed to march away from their post on the island yesterday evening, going in a body with their arms to the interior of this State. They expressed themselves tired of the war and said they thought such a step on their part would end it. A secret oath had been exacted of all admitted to their confidence not to divulge their intentions.
- Believing these reports might be well founded, I advised Brigadier-General Mercer, commanding the District of Georgia, to send Colonel Olmstead's regiment and a part of Colonel Gordon's command last evening to take position near the Little Ogeechee to observe the enemy in his threatened advance from that quarter, with private instructions to watch the garrison at Rose Dew Island.
- These dispositions were made and the suspected troops watched. No movement was attempted by them during the night.
- By order of General Mercer a board of officers is now engaged in a rigid investigation of the whole matter, and as soon as the facts are known the guilty men will be arrested and placed in close confinement for trial and punishment. This spirit of discontent has ripened into an intent to desert
- under the influence of idleness, a want of active service for officers and men, and I am satisfied it will be best to exchange some of the troops here for others, sending the disaffected to Charleston or some other point where they will be in the presence of the enemy.
- The companies at Rose Dew are Company F (Capt. J. W. Anderson), Company I (Captain Elkins), Fifty-fourth Georgia Regiment, and Jackson Guards (Captain Tanner), who claims to belong to the Fourth Florida Battalion, but is considered here as commanding an independent company. There are two other companies of the Fifty-fourth Georgia Regiment here, commanded by Captains Russell and Brantley; the latter is with the siege train.
- As a change of duty may be the means of improving the tone of these disaffected troops, I propose to order the four companies of Colonel Way's regiment, Fifty-fourth Georgia, and the Jackson Guards, Captain Tanner, to the Third Military District of South Carolina, and replace them here by the
- Twelfth Georgia Battalion, Major Hanvey. The Fifty-seventh Georgia Regiment should be sent on duty in presence of the enemy, say at Charleston or some other point, and another regiment sent
- here to replace it. The men of this regiment complain, as stated by Brigadier-General Colston, that they were not properly exchanged after their capture at Vicksburg.
- Will the commanding general take these troops to Charleston and send a good regiment to replace them here? If this cannot be done, perhaps an exchange might be arranged so as to bring a regiment from the Army of Tennessee or from Virginia.
- The enclosed report from Brigadier-General Colston gives a clear statement of what has transpired up to this hour, and I concur fully in the recommendations therein made. Prompt action will probably be the means of avoiding future trouble, and add to the general efficiency of our available strength. The individuals found guilty of exciting their companions in arms to discontent and desertion should be promptly punished. I am, general, very respectfully, your obedient servant, J. F. GILMER, Major-General and Second in Command. [Enclosure.]
- HEADQUARTERS COLSTON'S BRIGADE, January 14, 1864. Capt. G. A. MERCER,
- Assistant Adjutant-General:
- SIR: On Tuesday, 12th instant, a communication was received from Captain Hanleiter, Commanding Beaulieu Battery, to the effect that a non-commissioned officer had informed him of the existence of a plot among the garrison at Rose Dew, the purpose of which was to abandon the post at Rose Dew with arms, ammunition, &c., to win over the troops at Beaulieu if possible, to advance toward Savannah, taking with them the Terrell Artillery at White Bluff, whose adhesion was considered certain, also some State troops camped on the Skidaway road, and to come to the camp of the Fifty-seventh Georgia, upon whom they seemed to rely as ready to join them, the whole to make their way to the interior of the country, their avowed purpose being to induce by their example as many of the troops as possible to imitate them and by refusing to bear arms any longer "to put an end to the war." The plot was to be executed on last night. I immediately sent Capt. W. T. Taliaferro, my assistant adjutant-general, to Beaulieu and Rose Dew to investigate the matter. In the mean time an order was sent from district headquarters for the arrest of Private Coleman, Company F, Fifty-fourth Georgia, and he was sent on to the barracks at Savannah. From the result of investigations made by Major Hartridge, commanding at Rose Dew, and Captain Taliaferro it became evident that the plot, which at first appeared so improbable, did really exist.
- On yesterday I ordered about 300 men from the First Georgia Regiment and the First Florida Battalion, under the command of Colonel Olmstead, First Georgia, to repair to the causeway connecting Rose Dew Island with the mainland and cut off the communication between the two. Captain Guerard's battery of artillery was ordered to support him. One hundred and fifty men
- from the Sixty-third Georgia Regiment, under Major Allen, were ordered to report to Colonel Olmstead. These movements of troops were made ostensibly for the purpose of meeting some demonstrations of the enemy by way of the Ogeechee.
- No attempt of any kind was made on last night by the garrison at Rose Dew. The arrest of Coleman and the concentration of troops has evidently frustrated the design, but from the report of Sergeant Hinson to Captain Tanner (Jackson Guards, at Rose Dew), the attempt was not given up until
- late yesterday evening. Another non-commissioned officer confessed last night to Captain Tanner that nearly the whole company had agreed to go off that night. All the parties concerned were pledged to secrecy by an oath.
- A board has been ordered by district headquarters to investigate further into the matter. The troops sent to Rose Dew to check any attempt will remain there until further orders. I would respectfully offer the following suggestions:
- First. That a court-martial be convened forthwith for the immediate trial of the parties implicated; that the proceedings of this court be revised at once by the proper authority and the sentences be immediately carried into effect. A terrible and very prompt punishment is indispensable in such an extreme case.
- Second. That the troops at Rose Dew be removed from that post and their place supplied by others upon whom reliance can be placed.
- Third. That the Fifty-seventh Georgia Regiment be transferred either to the Army of Tennessee or of Virginia. The spirit of this regiment (the Fifty-seventh Georgia) is bad. The troops say that they have never been properly exchanged, and the impression prevails, probably with good reason, that they will not fight if brought before the enemy. They are demoralized by the influence of home, to which they are too near, their friends and relatives persuading them that they have not been properly exchanged and ought to be at home. Their presence here may have a bad effect upon the other troops and their spirit and tone may be improved by removal to more distant points. It will be necessary, of course, to send other troops in the place of those removed. I am, sir, very respectfully, your obedient servant,
- R. E. COLSTON, Brigadier-General, Commanding.
O.R.--SERIES I--VOLUME XXXV/1 FEBRUARY 22, 1864.--Skirmish at Whitemarsh Island, Ga. Report of Brig. Gen. Raleigh E. Colston, C. S. Army. DURING SIEGE OF VICKSBURG. Mentioned by Maj. Gen. C. L. Stevenson:
- Brig. Gen. S. D. Lee, gallant conduct in repulsing the only decided assault made on General Stevenson's line during siege. Lieut. Col. E. W. Pettus, gallant conduct in leading charge against enemy in ditch and capturing two stand of colors placed by the enemy on parapet. Colonel [C. S.] Guyton, Fifty-seventh Georgia, gallant conduct in leading sally, Colonel [W. E.] Curtiss, Forty-first Georgia, gallant conduct in picket fight, capturing 107 Federals. Colonel [I. W.] Garrott, Twentieth
- Alabama, killed; true soldier and gifted patriot. Captain [F. O.] Claiborne, artillery corps, gallant conduct; killed. Lieut. G. D. Wise, ordnance officer Cumming's brigade, gallant conduct; specially mentioned for Valuable services rendered in carrying dispatches to General [J. E.] Johnston. Maj. J. J. Reeve, assistant adjutant-general, gallant conduct and strict attention to duty. Major [G. L.] Gillespie, chief of subsistence, valuable services in subsisting garrison by close attention to duties. Capt. J. W. Johnston, inspector-general light artillery, for valuable services rendered. Captains Waddell and [John B.J Grayson, commanding light batteries, valuable services. Capt. P. Robinson, engineer officer, valuable services. Major [J. E.] McElrath, quartermaster, valuable services.
- Respectfully, your obedient servant, J. C. PEMBERTON, Lieutenant-General.
- O.R.-- SERIES I--VOLUME XXXV/1 FEBRUARY 22, 1864.--Skirmish at Whitemarsh Island, Ga.Report of Brig. Gen. Raleigh E. Colston, C. S. Army.
- I would respectfully beg leave to substitute the Sixty-fourth GeorgiaRegiment, now returning from Florida, for the First Georgia Regiment, for the following reasons: This latter regiment is serving as artillerists at the principal batteries on which we rely for the defense of Savannah, namely, the Savannah River batteries, Fort Bartow, lines and batteries on Whitemarsh Island, and at Fort McAllister. Their military training has been as heavy artillerists, and I have none to replace them. It has been necessary also to assign the colonel (C. H. Olmstead) to the command of the Third Military District of South Carolina. I therefore earnestly suggest that the substitution of the Sixty-fourth Georgia Regiment for the First Georgia Regiment be authorized. The Sixty-third Georgia Regiment has been serving also as heavy artillerists, but I can supply their places in part by the Twelfth Georgia Battalion, which was originally organized for an artillery battalion. The Fifty-seventh Georgia Regiment has been sent, as ordered, to relieve the Fifth Georgia Regiment, in guarding prisoners at Andersonville. The Fifty-fourth Georgia Regiment will move as ordered at the earliest practicable moment; also the Sixty-third Georgia Regiment. I am, general, very respectfully, your obedient servant, SAM. JONES, Major-General, Commanding.
O.R.-- SERIES I--VOLUME XXXV/1 CONFEDERATE CORRESPONDENCE, ORDERS, AND RETURNS RELATING TO OPERATIONS IN SOUTH CAROLINA AND FLORIDA, AND ON THE GEORGIA COAST, FROM JANUARY 1 TO FEBRUARY 29, 1864.--#2 FEBRUARY 26, 1864.
- General MERCER:
- GENERAL: In connection with the recent attack of the enemy on Whitemarsh Island, I am instructed to convey to you the following suggestions:
- The garrison on that island should be permanent and made fully acquainted with its topography, and a portion should consist of a company of cavalry, whose rapid movements might, in a measure, counterbalance the very small force that can be spared for its defense. It is also deemed advisable to
- have a high lookout erected, but concealed as far as practicable from the enemy's observation, and from which a strict watch may be kept on the movements of the enemy from the direction of Wilmington Narrows and Savannah River. At the same time it will be well to adopt some means to insure the rapid conveyance of intelligence to the various picket-posts. It is thought that a shorter road should be constructed between Fort Bartow and Thunderbolt Battery.
- The commanding general is informed that the garrison on White-marsh Island was surprised in the recent affair with the enemy; that a company of the Fifty-seventh Georgia Regiment, on picket at Gibbons, showed a want of soldierly conduct and retreated in spite of their captain's commands and
- efforts. You will please have a strict examination and report made of the facts and forwarded to these headquarters. Respectfully, your obedient servant. THOS. JORDAN.
- Captain, and Assistant Adjutant-General. HEADQUARTERS COLSTON'S BRIGADE,
- February 28, 1864.
- CAPTAIN: I have the honor to submit the following report of the affair Which took place on Whitemarsh Island on Monday, the 22d instant: One lieutenant and 2 privates of the Eighty-fifth Pennsylvania Volunteers surrendered themselves rather than recross the bridge under fire of our
- artillery. The rest of this party kept up a fire of skirmishers upon the artillery, by which we lost 1 man and 1 horse killed. Lieutenant Richardson finally drove them off by a fire of shell. They then advanced toward the picket at Gibson's house, composed of a detachment of the Fifty-seventh Regiment Georgia Volunteers, under the command of Captain Tucker.
- O.R.-- SERIES I--VOLUME XXXV/1 CONFEDERATE CORRESPONDENCE, ORDERS, AND RETURNS RELATING TO OPERATIONS INSOUTH CAROLINA AND FLORIDA, AND ON THE GEORGIA COAST, FROM JANUARY 1 TO FEBRUARY 29, 1864.--#6
- Brig. Gen. R. E. Colston reports to-day as follows: On Tuesday, 12thinstant, a communication was received from Captain Hanleiter, commanding Beaulieu Battery, to the effect that a non-commissioned officer had informed him of the existence of a plot among the garrison at Rose Dew Island (mouth of the Little Ogeechee River), the purpose of which was to abandon the post
- at Rose Dew, with arms, ammunition, &c.; to win over the troops at Beaulieuif possible; to advance toward Savannah, taking with them the Terrell Artillery, at White Bluff, whose adhesion was considered certain; also some State troops encamped on the Skidaway road, and to come to the camp of the Fifty-seventh Georgia, upon whom they seemed to rely as ready to join them.
- The whole to make their way to the interior of the country, their avowedpurpose being to induce by their example as many of the troops as possible to imitate them, and by refusing to bear arms any longer "to put an end to the war." The plot was to be executed on last night. General Colston
- immediately sent Capt. W. T. Taliaferro, his assistant adjutant-general, toBeaulieu and Rose Dew to investigate the matter. In the mean time an order was sent from district headquarters for the arrest of Private Coleman, Company F, Fifty-fourth Georgia, and he was sent on to the barracks at
- Savannah. From the result of investigations made by Major Hartridge,commanding at Rose Dew, and Captain Taliaferro, it became evident that this plot, which at first appeared so improbable, did really exist.
- On yesterday General Colston ordered about 300 men from the First GeorgiaRegiment and the First Florida Battalion, under the command of Colonel Olmstead, First Georgia, to repair to the causeway connecting Rose Dew Island with the main land and cut off the communication between the two.
- Captain Guerard's battery of artillery was ordered to support him. Onehundred and fifty men from the Sixty-third Georgia Regiment, under Major Allen, were ordered to report to Colonel Olmstead. These movements of troops were made ostensibly for the purpose of meeting some demonstrations of the enemy by way of the Ogeechee. No attempt of any kind was made on last night by the garrison at Rose Dew. The arrest of Coleman and the concentration of troops has evidently frustrated the design; but from the report of Sergeant Hinson to Captain Tanner (Jackson Guards, at Rose Dew) the attempt was not given up until late yesterday evening. Another non-commissioned officer confessed last night to Captain Tanner that nearly the whole company had agreed to go off that night. All the parties concerned were pledged to secrecy by an oath.
- The spirit of the Fifty-seventh Georgia Regiment is bad. The troops saythey have never been properly exchanged, and the impression prevails (probably with good reason) that they will not fight if brought before the enemy. They are demoralized by the influence of home, to which they are too near, their friends and relatives persuading them that they have not been properly exchanged and ought to be at home. General Colston says their presence there may have a bad effect upon the other troops, and their spirit and tone may be improved by removal to more distant points. It will be necessary, of
- course, to send other troops in the place of those removed. The companiesat Rose Dew are: Company F, Capt. J. W. Anderson; Company I, Captain Elkins, Fifty-fourth Georgia Regiment, and Jackson Guards, Captain Tanner, who claims to belong to the Fourth Florida Battalion, but is considered there as commanding an independent company. There are two other companies of the
- Fifty-fourth Georgia Regiment near Savannah, commanded by Captains Russelland Brantley. The latter is with the siege train.
- O.R.-- SERIES I--VOLUMEXXXV/1 JANUARY 1-NOVEMBER 13, 1864.--Operations in Charleston Harbor and Vicinity, S.C. No. 30.--Extracts from Journal of Operations in Charleston Harbor, January 1-21. [Second endorsement.] HDQRS. DEPT. OF S. CAROLINA, GEORGIA, AND FLORIDA, Charleston, S.C., March 26, 1864.
- Respectfully forwarded to the War Department, for its information.Brigadier-General Colston mentions in his report that a portion of the Fifty-seventh Georgia Regiment behaved badly. He complains of the total inadequacy of the force at his command to resist these raids, and says that
- if he had brought every available man to the defense of Whitemarsh Islandhe could not have mustered more than 500 men. He compliments Colonel Pritchard, Captain Turner, and Lieutenant Richardson, commanding artillery section. G. T. BEAU REGARD, General, Commanding.
- O.R.-- SERIES I--VOLUME XXXV/2 CONFEDERATE CORRESPONDENCE, ORDERS, AND RETURNS RELATING TO OPERATIONS IN SOUTH CAROLINA AND FLORIDA AND ON THE GEORGIA COAST, FROM MARCH 1 TO NOVEMBER 13, 1864.--#5 HEADQUARTERS,
- Savannah, April 30, 1864. Maj. GILES B. COOKE, Assistant Adjutant-General, Charleston, S.C.:
- MAJOR: I have the honor to report for the information of the Major-general commanding that the Fifty-fourth, Fifty-seventh, and Sixty-third Georgia Regiments have left Savannah for the Army of Tennessee.
- The very moment the troops returning from Florida arrived at Savannah they were sent to relieve the pickets and the garrisons at the different posts within my command, and the companies composing the regiments ordered to march were concentrated without delay and forwarded by rail as fast as
- transportation could be had.
- I have telegraphed Maj. Gen. Patton Anderson to send forward the Sixty-fourth [Georgia] speedily.. As soon as this regiment arrives I will have it sent on. The first body of Federal prisoners, 688 in number, arrived here yesterday about 3 p.m.; they were sent forward as soon as rations could be issued. The second body arrived this morning, and it becomes necessary for me to send them in charge of the guard that accompanied the first lot from Charleston. A guard could not be supplied from the forces about Savannah without an unjustifiable exposure of important batteries. None of the regiments ordered to Savannah from the Army of Tennessee have yet arrived, not even the Fifth Georgia, to relieve which the Fifty-seventh [Georgia] was sent to Andersonville. Under these circumstances it may become necessary to send the guard that arrived here this morning from Charleston forward with any additional prisoners that may be sent here, but I will avoid this if possible. Very respectfully, your obedient servant, J. F. GILMER, Major-General, Commanding.
- HEADQUARTERS ARMY OF TENNESSEE,OFFICE CHIEF OF STAFF, August 2, 1864.
- Lieutenant-General HARDEE:
- GENERAL: The papers of Colonels Olmstead and Barkuloo, presenting aquestion of rank, have been forwarded to Richmond. In the mean time, to prevent confusion, Colonel Olmstead will be regarded as the senior. This is thought to be in accordance with the merits of the case.
- I am, general, very respectfully, your obedient servant.F. A. SHOUP, Chief of Staff.
- O.R.-- SERIES I--VOLUME XXXVIII/3 May 1-September 8, 1864.--THE ATLANTA (GEORGIA) CAMPAIGN No. 624.--Report of Col. William Barkuloo, Fifty-seventh Georgia Infantry, commanding Mercer's brigade, of operations July 22-August 2. IN THE FIELD, Near Allatoona, May 21, 1864.
- His Excellency the PRESIDENT:
- My dispatch of yesterday contained an error in statement. It should have read thus: In the last six days the enemy has pressed us back to this point, thirty-two miles. My arrangements were for an attack on the 15th, not on the 13th. Your dispatch of 18th was received yesterday. I know that my dispatch must of necessity create the feeling you express. I have earnestly sought an opportunity to strike the enemy. The direction of the railroad to this point has enabled him to press me back by steadily moving to the left and by fortifying the moment he halted. He has made an assault upon his superior forces too hazardous, and in making this retrograde march we have [not] lost much by straggling or desertion. The Fifty-seventh Georgia has arrived and all General Polk's troops are up.
- J. E. JOHNSTON, General.
- O.R.-- SERIES I--VOLUME XXXV/2 CONFEDERATE CORRESPONDENCE, ORDERS, AND RETURNS RELATING TO OPERATIONS IN SOUTH CAROLINA AND FLORIDA AND ON THE GEORGIA COAST, FROM MARCH 1 TO NOVEMBER 13, 1864.--#6
- CAPTAIN: I have the honor to report through you to the major-generalcommanding that about 5 p.m. on 22d of July the brigade (Lieutenant-Colonel Rawls, Fifty-fourth Georgia, commanding), under the direction of Brigadier-General Lowrey, moved by the left flank to a point near to and southwest of the Fair Ground road, and distant from Atlanta two miles and a half, opposite the works then occupied by the enemy. From this position we assaulted the enemy's works, carrying two lines. In the assault on the second line Lieutenant-Colonel Rawls was wounded and carried from the field, when the command devolved on myself. The enemy was at this time occupying a third line of works distant from the line occupied by us about thirty paces, both sides firing rapidly. The brigade was in the utmost state of confusion as regarded its organization, the regiments being intermingled with each other and the right of Maney's brigade. On assuming command, I immediately ordered an advance, but the men could be induced to go no farther, which I think was owing in part, if not altogether, to want of organization,
- officers being unable to form their commands under so close and deadlyfire.
- About 9 p.m. I reported, through Captain Gordon, assistantinspector-general, of Brigadier-General Mercer's staff, the condition of affairs to Brigadier-General Lowery and asked for instructions, and was ordered to hold the position, which was done until 3 a.m. on 23d, when orders were received from Brigadier-General Mercer to withdraw and report to him at his headquarters. This was accomplished in tolerably good order. The casualties of the day, ending 3 a.m. 23d, were 30 killed, 129 wounded,
- and 20 missing.
- July 23, at 5 a.m. the brigade moved in position on the line to the rightof Major-General Cleburne's division and commenced to intrench. July 24, the brigade was engaged in strengthening its position and policing the ground. Colonel Barkuloo, Fifty-seventh Georgia, reported and assumed command.
- During my temporary command I found the assistance rendered by CaptainsMercer and Gordon, of Brigadier-General Mercer's staff, of great service, and I cannot speak in terms too highly of their gallant conduct on 22d. I am, captain, with much respect, your obedient servant, C. S. GUYTON,
- Lieutenant-Colonel, Commanding.Captain Buck, Assistant Adjutant-General.
- O.R.-- SERIES I--VOLUME XXXVIII/3 May 1-September 8, 1864.--THE ATLANTA (GEORGIA) CAMPAIGN No. 622.--Report of Lieut. Col. Cincinnatus S. Guyton, Fifty-seventh Georgia
- Infantry, commanding Mercer's brigade, of operations July 22-24. HEADQUARTERS FIFTY-SEVENTH GEORGIA, September 22, 1864.
- CAPTAIN: I have the honor to report through you to the major-generalcommanding the following:
- On the morning of the 22d of July Brigadier-General Mercer notified me ofthe death of Major-General Walker and ordered me to take command of the brigade. At that time we occupied a position in rear of a line supposed to be held by the brigades of Gist and Stevens (being in reserve for those brigades), on the right of the Fair Ground road. I immediately assumed command, and having learned from officers and men who passed through the brigade before General Mercer left that Gist's line had been driven in, and in all probability that Stevens' had met with the same misfortune, I sent
- scouts to the right, left, and front, to report stay advance of the enemy,and to ascertain if there were any Confederate forces within supporting distance. The Federal forces were in my front, about three-quarters of a mile distant, and from one point of the line in view. I soon ascertained that the brigade was unsupported on either flank. About this time General Mercer informed me that the enemy in our front were retreating and ordered me to advance. The brigade accordingly moved forward down the slope of the hill, and as we neared the valley separating our position from the
- hill occupied by the enemy the woods became more open and exposed us to theview of the Federals and to a heavy fire of artillery. The valley was narrow and destitute of trees and other shelter, excepting along the edge of a small stream running diagonally across it. I ordered a halt as soon as the brigade reached the fringe of bushes along the branch and proceeded to reconnoiter the position of the enemy, whom I had discovered strongly posted on emerging from the woods. In this I was ably seconded by Captains Mercer and Gordon, of Brigadier-General Mercer's staff. We found the enemy drawn up in three lines of battle on the crest of the hill and supported by two batteries. Between us and them the ground was open and afforded no shelter for an advance. They were distant about 500 yards, and their lines outflanked ours both to the right and left.
- Having ascertained these facts, I determined to withdraw the brigade at once from under the heavy fire of artillery then pouring into our ranks. Having given the command, the troops fell back in good order to about their former position, having lost about 15 killed and wounded. I reported to General Mercer the condition of affairs, and in a short time he ordered me to report to Brigadier-General Lowrey, on our left. As soon as I reached the place designated I was directed to march the brigade around to near General Hardee's quarters, from where, by direction of a staff officer, I advanced some 500 or 600 yards up the road and formed line of battle at right angles with and to the left of the road, the right of the line resting on it. While forming this line the report reached me that General Cleburne had carried the enemy's works, capturing several pieces of artillery and 2,000 prisoners, and had no use for us.
- Being but recently from a sick bed, and exhausted by the fatigues of the day, I here turned over the command to Lieutenant-Colonel Rawis, Fifty-fourth Georgia, and reported to the brigade hospital.
- July 24, again assumed command of the brigade, then in the trenches southeast of Atlanta, near the Fair Ground road. July 25, in the morning the brigade was assigned to Major-General Cleburne's division, and Brigadier-General Mercer returned to his place. In the evening he was relieved and I again placed in command. July 26, we were occupied in clearing up the ground and completing the works. July 27, at 7.30 a.m. we moved into the trenches south of Atlanta, with the left resting upon the
- Georgia Railroad. All quiet along the front; the brigade employed in completing the trenches and placing obstacles in front. From this time until the 2d of August there was no change in our position, except shortening our front by closing to the right. During this time the men were employed in
- strengthening the defenses, clearing off and policing the ground, until, on the morning mentioned, I received an order, of which the following is a copy, appended, whereupon I turned over the command to Colonel Olmstead. Respectfully submitted. WM. BARKULOO, Colonel Fifty-seventh Georgia. Captain BUCK, Assistant Adjutant-General.
- The following is submitted with permission by Mrs. Linda Ward Meadows
57th Georgia Regiment: A Defense of Valor
James Harrison Joyner (star at feet) of 57th Georgia died in 1912, so this Confederate Veterans Reunion photograph was taken before that time.
The 57th Georgia Regiment was organized between May-June 1862 and soon thereafter went to Chattanooga, Tennessee, serving with the Department of East Tennessee. Early in 1863, the unit was reassigned to the Department of Mississippi and East Louisiana and in the Army of Vicksburg, Mississippi. After their parole and exchange following the fall of Vicksburg, the 57th joined the Department of South Carolina, Georgia, and Florida. By the spring of 1864, they were assigned to the Army of Tennessee, where they remained for the duration of the war.
Colonel William Barkuloo was the 57th Regiment's first commander. Governor Joseph E. Brown authorized Secretary of War, G.W. Randolph, to accept Barkuloo's Georgia State troops as full members of the Confederate States Army on 6 May 1862, asking also that all State troops be given "perfect equality with regiments which originally entered the Confederate service." Randolph notified General E. Kirby Smith in Knoxville, Tennessee on 2 July 1862 that he had ordered Colonel Barkuloo's troops from Dalton, Georgia to Chattanooga, Tennessee along with several other military units. All units were unarmed, but Randolph promised a 6000 stand of arms to General Kirby, instructing him to advise the reinforcements of where to receive their arms.
The men of the 57th were involved in several notable battles during the War Between the States. Among some of those were the battles of: Cumberland Gap, June 17-18, 1862; Kentucky Campaign, August-October 1862; Vicksburg Campaign and Siege May-July 1863; Champion Hill (Baker's Creek, Mississippi), May 16, 1863; Whitemarsh Island, February 22, 1864; Atlanta Campaign, May-September 1864; Kennesaw Mt., June 27, 1864; Atlanta, July 22-September 1864; Jonesboro, August 31-September 1, 1864; Franklin and Nashville, Tennessee, November and December 1864; Carolinas Campaign February-April 1865; and Bentonville, North Carolina, March 19-21, 1865.
The Official Records have correspondence that tells of the trials and tribulations facing this regiment, especially after their defeat at Vicksburg, Mississippi in July 1863. Commanding Brigadier General Alfred Cumming of the 3rd Brigade, to which the 57th Georgia Regiment was assigned, wrote on 22 July 1863, saying that the 3rd Brigade, Major General Carter L. Stevenson's Division, crossed Baker's Creek at the bridge over this stream in Mississippi on 15 May 1863. Shortly after sunup on 16 May 1863, they backtracked and were brought into position to fight on a succession of ridges overlooking a clear field. The actions of Colonel William Barkuloo and the 57th Regiment during this campaign were praised.
The 3rd Brigade went into this campaign's action with 2500 men. Writing from Enterprise, Alabama on 22 July 1863, Brigadier General Cumming reported that the brigade's total of 995 casualties included 142 killed, 314 wounded, and 539 missing. Of the missing, he estimated that about 200 were actually killed or wounded. The 3rd Brigade then entered Vicksburg on Sunday, 17 May and on the morning of 18 May moved into trenches, where they remained without relief for 47 days until the surrender on 4 July. The enemy's "rifle-pits in times were so extended as to almost entirely envelope the brigade front, and were generally about 150 yards distant."
Report No. 77 from Division Commander Major General Carter L. Stevenson noted the hardships faced by the Confederate garrisons during the Vicksburg Siege. Stevenson mentioned in his report that when his troops attacked, they did so with "spirit and success." He described a particular night attack conducted by Lieutenant Colonel C.S. Guyton and a portion of the 57th Georgia Regiment under the command of Brigadier General Cumming, which was accompanied by men from Reynold's Brigade in the 43rd Tennessee Regiment. "The enemy had entrenched themselves at three different points on and to the left of the Hall's Ferry road. The command sallied out, charged their works with admirable gallantry, and took them, with considerable loss to the enemy, who were in greatly superior forces."
In further comments, Major General Stevenson wrote of his respect for his men during the Vicksburg Siege. "I cannot find words sufficiently strong to express the pride and gratification afforded me by the dauntless spirit with which officers and men encountered all the dangers, and by the unmurmuring endurance with which they bore up for the forty-seven sleepless nights and days, under all the hardships incident to their position. Confined, without a moment's relief from the very day of their entrance into the fortifications to that of the capitulation of the city, to the narrow trenches; exposed without shelter to the broiling sun and drenching rain; subsisting on rations barely sufficient for the support of life; engaged from the earliest dawn till dark, and often during the night, in one ceaseless conflict with the enemy, they neither faltered nor complained, but, ever looking forward with confidence to relief, bore up bravely under every privation--saw their ranks decimated by disease and the missiles of the enemy--with the fortitude that adorns the soldier and the spirit that becomes the patriot who battles in a holy cause (O.R.--Series I--Volume XXIV/2 [S# 37]."
Regardless of the bravery of the Confederate forces, they were overtaken. The 57th was assigned to Parole Camp at Demopolis, Alabama. The Agent of Exchange, R.O. Ould, wrote Brigadier General S.A. Meredith at the CSA War Department, stating that an exchange would take place on 12 September 1863. After their release, members of the 57th Georgia were sent to serve in the Department of Georgia. By command of the Secretary of War in Special Orders No. 232, 30 Sept 1863, "The Fifty-seventh Georgia Regiment, Stevenson's Division, will repair to Savannah, Georgia and report for duty to Brigadier General Mercer."
The 57th Regiment was then placed under the command of Brigadier General R.E. Colston in the District of Georgia on 20 Oct 1863. To say that the 57th was a happy regiment following Vicksburg would have been an outright lie. Brigadier General Hugh W. Mercer, commanding at Savannah, telegraphed that 200 of the 57th had arrived in Savannah on 14 Jan 1864. There was much contention among the 57th in their Savannah camp over the conditions of their recent parole and exchange. The 57th was placed under the command of Captain J.W. Anderson and assigned to duty on Rose Dew Island located at the mouth of the Little Ogeechee River. Like many other Southern men, members of the 57th apparently found it difficult to continue fighting after taking an oath to lay down their arms against the US Federal Government.
Major General, and second in command, J.F. Gilmer, detailed evidence of such discontent in his report to Brigadier General Thomas Jordan, Chief of Staff, Charleston, SC. Gilmer suggested: "The 57th Georgia Regiment should be sent on duty in presence of the enemy, say at Charleston or some other point, and another regiment sent here to replace it. The men of this regiment complain that they were not properly exchanged after their capture at Vicksburg." Was their concern over the parole and exchange, per se, or the fact that the exchange process took until 12 September, a little over 2 months from the date of their capture and parole?
Commanding officers in Savannah were afraid of the overall morale of many regiments along the Georgia coast, including that of the 54th, 57th, and 63rd. A plot was discovered, which discontented Confederates planned to carry out on 12-13 January 1864. Confederate officers in Savannah feared that the 57th Regiment would join, even though they were not among the organizers. By refusing to bear arms, soldiers hoped to end the war. To nip this plot in the bud, Brigadier General R.E. Colston took action by ordering the arrest of a leader of the resistance movement, a man identified as Private Coleman, who was a soldier with Co. F, 54th Georgia Regiment. Coleman was confined to barracks in Savannah.
The Roster of Confederate Soldiers from Georgia, Volume 5 lists two privates with the surname Coleman. Both Andrew J. Coleman and William T. Coleman enlisted as privates 6 May 1862, with Co. C, 54th Regiment, Bartow Infantry. Both men were transferred to Company F, 54th Regiment, Savannah Cadets on 1 Jan 1863. The Private Coleman in question apparently remained in service following the foiled plot to resist fighting. Andrew J. Coleman was captured at Salisbury, North Carolina 12 April 1865, and released at Camp Chase, Ohio on 13 June 1865. William T. Coleman was captured at Marietta, Georgia 18 June 1864, paroled at Camp Morton, Indiana, and forwarded to Point Lookout, Maryland for exchange 10 March 1865. William was received at Cox's Wharves, James River, Virginia 23 March 1863. He died of dysentery at Richmond, Virginia shortly thereafter and was buried at sea (Roster, Vol. V, 649). Regardless of the action taken against the alleged perpetrator of resistance from Co. F, 54th Georgia Regiment, apparently he continued military service after his incarceration in the Savannah barracks.
As further assurance of ending the proposed plot, Brigadier General Colston also requested that the 57th Georgia Regiment be transferred either to the Army of the Tennessee, or of VA. He noted that the "spirit of this regiment is bad," stating that, "The troops say that they have never been properly exchanged, and the impression prevails, probably with good reason, that they will not fight if brought before the enemy. They are demoralized by the influence of home, to which they are too near, their friends and relatives persuading them that they have not been properly exchanged and ought to be at home. Their presence here may have a bad effect upon the other troops and their spirit and tone may be improved by removal to more distant points."
It should be reiterated at this point that the solemn parole oath made by members of the 57th stated: "That I shall not take up arms again against the United States, nor serve in any military, police, or constabulary force in any Fort, Garrison, or field work, held by the Confederate States of America, against the United States of America, nor as guard of prisons, depots or stores, nor discharge any duties usually performed by Officers or soldiers against the United States of America, until duly exchanged by the proper authorities ( Paroles of Pvt. Labon L. Bryant and Pvt. James Harrison Joyner, Co. F, 57th Georgia Regiment, Vicksburg, Mississippi, 7 July 1863, signed by Captain J.O. Pullens, 20th Regiment, Illinois Volunteers)."
Pvt. James Harrison Joyner, who served with Company F, 57th Georgia
Brigadier General Colston's concerns proved valid. A portion of Co. F, 57th Georgia stationed on Rose Dew Island under the command of Captain J.W. Anderson was said to be "behaving badly." In a message dated 26 Feb 1864, Brigadier General Thomas Jordan wrote to Brigadier General Mercer telling of one company of the 57th Georgia Regiment's retreating during combat on Gibbon's Island in spite of the captain's commands and efforts. Although he did not state the specific company of the 57th which concerned him, Chief of Staff Jordan did recognize the need for action.
On 22 April 1864, Major General Sam Jones, Commander, wrote to General S. Cooper, Adjutant and Inspector General, Richmond, VA stating that Special Orders, No. 89, War Department, CS ordered that the 1st, 53rd, and 57th Regiments Georgia Volunteers should proceed to Dalton, Georgia to relieve the 5th, 47th, and 55th Georgia Regiments. Specifically, the 57th was ordered to relieve the 5th Georgia Regiment, in guarding prisoners at Andersonville, although that stint of duty was short-lived.
Guarding prisoners was still in violation of the terms of parole and exchange as perceived by members of the 57th Georgia Regiment. Nonetheless, correspondence from Major General J.F. Gilmer to Major Giles B. Cooke, Assistant Adjutant-General, Charleston, SC, dated at Savannah on 30 April 1864, noted that the 57th Georgia had left Savannah by rail for service with the Army of Tennessee. Even the President of the Confederacy was kept informed of the movements of the 57th. A missive dated 21 May 1864, written near Allatoona Pass in North Georgia by General J.E. Johnston to President Jefferson Davis noted that "the Fifty-seventh Georgia has arrived."
From May-September 1864, the 57th was with Major General William H.T. Walker's Division, Brigadier General Hugh W. Mercer's Brigade. The 57th was under the immediate command of Lieutenant Colonel Cincinnatus S. Guyton. In Report No. 622, Lt. Colonel Guyton noted the actions involved in the Atlanta Campaign. Guyton stated that Colonel William Barkuloo of the 57th Georgia assumed command as division leader on 24 July 1864, following the death of Major General Walker. The 57th was fighting 2 1/2 miles from Atlanta, southwest of the Fair Ground Road.
On 22 Sept 1864, Colonel Barkuloo wrote about the operations of July 22-August 2 and noted that he had been replaced by Colonel Charles H. Olmstead. After the fall of Atlanta and the death of Major General Walker, Walker's old division was breaking up. The 57th fell in with Major General Patrick R. Cleburne's Division, Mercer's Brigade, under Colonel Charles H. Olmstead. The 57th was still under the command of Lieutenant Colonel Guyton from 1 May-30 Sept 1864.
The 57th was involved in campaigns in Northern Alabama and Middle Tennessee from 14 Nov 1864-23 Jan 1865, as part of the Army of Tennessee, Cleburne's Division, now with Brigadier General James A. Smith. Colonel Charles H. Olmstead was the commander, but Captain Lucius C. Bryan was now in charge of the 57th Georgia Regiment. Smith's brigade report dated 3 Jan 1865, told of the strengths of his brigade. He reported a total of 636 effective men, 65 of whom were from the 57th Georgia's total of 120 present. The 57th Regiment's aggregate present was 138, including 3 servants. The remainder of the 200 members of the 57th Regiment sent from Vicksburg to the Georgia coast in the fall of 1863 proved themselves to be survivors.
Reorganization of troops and commanders occurred throughout the war. Cleburne's Division saw changes in leadership during the latter month's of the war from 4 Mar-30 June 1865. Cleburne and Brigadier General Smith remained in command and were joined by Captain J.R. Bonner. Lieutenant A. Youngblood was now in charge of the 57th Georgia Regiment. When the 57th surrendered at Bentonville, NC on 26 April 1865, survivors returned home to rebuild lives put on hold when duty called.
In retrospect, the 57th Georgia Regiment's reluctance to fight was not evidence of cowardice after the Battle of Vicksburg and the confusion over parole and exchanges. The men of the 57th had given a sworn oath not to fight against the Federal forces until an exchange was finalized. This was done in an age when a man's word meant something. The sterling efforts of this fighting unit during the latter year and a half of the war are indicative of courage and dedication in the face of insurmountable odds. That courage enabled these men to survive the hardships of fighting on distant battlefields far from their Middle Georgia homes. When the fighting ceased, men of the 57th Georgia Regiment returned to their families and farms and courageously assumed the task of rebuilding the state that they loved.
Pvt. James Harrison Joyner, who served with Co. F, 57th Georgia. His wife was Elizabeth Aultman Joyner. They were both born in 1839, which makes the photo of them taken together really remarkable. He aged considerably after the siege of Vicksburg. I would estimate that the photo of them together was made about 1880-1885, based on how young she looks, not how old he looks. James Harrison Joyner died in 1912.
Sources Cited Herein are from Official Records, unless otherwise stated.
Compiled by Linda Ward Meadows, http://home.surfsouth.com/~lmeadows/ Recorder Of Military Service Awards, Dixie Chapter No. 2576, United Daughters of the Confederacy®; 90880Val-Del Road, Adel, Georgia 31620; Linda is a Great-Great Granddaughter of Privates Labon L. Bryant and James Harrison Joyner, who both served with Co. F, 57th Georgia Regiment from Crawford County, Georgia.
Last revised 4 July 2000………137 years after the Siege of Vicksburg
© 2003 John Griffin